Aug 27

Windows Search: Files Modified on a Specific Date

Download PDF

It’s a rather small & interesting post regarding searching files by it’s modified date. To some extent this knowledge became essential  when people are handling too many office files. So, on a specific date how do you search for modified dates? Here is how:

datemodified

Just type in “datemodified:” in the search area in Windows Explorer, select the date and let it search for the files that were modified or edited on that specific date. If you want to find the files into a specific folder; browse into the folder and then, run the search while you are on that folder.

Jul 13

DNS Resource Record Types

Download PDF

DNS resource records can be used to provide DNS-based data about computers on a TCP/IP network. Well I don’t know if there is a network other than TCP/IP network, other than the internal isolated lab network for engineering purposes. Anyway, the following are some primary resource records currently we work with:

  • SOA: Start of Authority locates the zone.
  • NS: NS records specify the authoritative name server for a domain.
  • A: Address records direct a hostname to a numerical IP address.
  • PTR: Pointer Records are used for reverse lookups, IP to domain or hostname.
  • CNAME: Canonical Name allows a machine to be known by one or more hostnames
  • MX: Mail Exchanger records are used to help route email according the domain owners preference
  • SRV: Service resource records enable you to specify the location of the servers for a specific service, protocol, and DNS domain (copy & paste from TechNet article, see below link for the whole description)

For further understanding of record composition, checkout the following links:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_DNS_record_types

https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc958958.aspx

Sharing a typical Example where the Office 365 cloud service records are required and those are as follows:

MX records

Priority Host name Points to address or value TTL
0 @ link3-net.mail.protection.outlook.com 3600

CNAME records

Host name Points to address or value TTL
autodiscover autodiscover.outlook.com 3600
sip sipdir.online.lync.com 3600
lyncdiscover webdir.online.lync.com 3600
msoid clientconfig.microsoftonline-p.net 3600
enterpriseregistration enterpriseregistration.windows.net 3600
enterpriseenrollment enterpriseenrollment.manage.microsoft.com 3600

TXT records

TXT name TXT value TTL
@ v=spf1 include:spf.protection.outlook.com -all 3600

SRV records

Service Protocol Port Weight Priority Name Target TTL
_sip _tls 443 1 100 @ sipdir.online.lync.com 3600
_sipfederationtls _tcp 5061 1 100 @ sipfed.online.lync.com 3600
comments: Closed tags: ,
May 10

Choosing a Name for Your Computer

Posted in Knowledgebase
Download PDF

I believe every now and then people of networkers face this dilemma where we the IT guys are troubled with this silly matter. Apparently it seems silly but the impact of it is really grave. If you fail to plan this properly, this is going to be a problem for you.

In a simple organization, you can probably get away with this by using following naming convention: Computer Name:

Department-Numeric Value

But imagine if you have an organization of a thousand employees, what then?

Computer Name: EmployeeID

Probably a very good idea to go with this, very easy to understand and to find out a computer. You can find out each computer by using the employee’s ID, could also suggest where this employee resides, east? west wing of the building perhaps?

But did you know that there is an RFC released for naming your computers? Amazing, right? Here you would find the best practices….read on…

Naming Your Computer: http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1178.html

Apr 15

Use System File Checker (SFC) to Scan and Repair System Files & use DISM to fix files where SFC fails

Download PDF

System File Checker (SFC) is a command-line tool that scans all protected system files and replaces incorrect versions with correct versions. This tool originally built for Windows 2000!, and all GA editions were shipped with it. In other words, SFC scans to check for any file corruption and repairs them accordingly. If you have modified your system files (including Windows DLL files) running SFC will revert the system files back to the default state.

Below table (SFC Switches) is a cut & paste from TechNet (Link provided below):

Switch Description
/scannow Scans all protected system files immediately.
/scanonce Scans all protected system files once at the next boot.
/scanboot Scans all protected system files at every restart.
/cancel Cancels all pending scans of protected system files.
/quiet Replaces all incorrect file versions without prompting the user.
/enable Enables WFP for normal operation.
/purgecache Purges the file cache and scans all protected system files immediately.
/cachesize= x Sets the file cache size in bytes. This change does not take effect

until you restart the computer.

/? Displays this list.

Follow the below steps:

  • Windows key + X, click “Command Prompt (Admin).”
  • On the Command Prompt, type the following command, and then press ENTER (assuming you are an Administrator & using a privileged account):
C:\WINDOWS\system32>sfc /SCANNOW

Please be mindful that it could take significant amount of time to complete this operation. Screenshot follows during its operation on a Windows 10 Pro computer:

sfc

When the SFC have finished running it will say either one of the following three notifications:

  • Windows did not find any integrity violations (this is very good)
  • Windows Resource Protection found corrupt files and repaired them (good news)
  • Windows Resource Protection found corrupt files but was unable to fix some (or all) of them (sad news, not bad)

Screenshot follows with errors:

sfc-completedBut do check the log and remedy statements almost always available in Microsoft TechNet site. Now, export the log by issuing the following command:

findstr /c:”[SR]” %windir%\Logs\CBS\CBS.log >”%userprofile%\Desktop\sfcdetails.txt”

This command will export the log to readable format onto your desktop, in a file named “sfcdetails.txt”. Open the file and it should look like the following screenshot:

sfc-log-export-txtNow the repair part begins….with DISM

DISM (Deployment Image Servicing and Management)

If you are on win 8 (or higher build of 8.1 or 10 even) you  should also run DISM whether SFC found errors or not!! To check the health (You sould use /CheckHealth to only check whether the image has been flagged as corrupted). From the same administrative command prompt run the following command:

DISM /Online /Cleanup-Image /CheckHealth

To scan the health, use the /ScanHealth switch to scan the image for component store corruption. Please remember that this option does not fix any corruption.

DISM /Online /Cleanup-Image /ScanHealth

To restore health use the /RestoreHealth switch to scan the image for component store corruption, perform repair operations automatically, and records that corruption to the log file.  This generally takes 5-20 minutes depending on the corruption and size of the partition. You can run scanhealth & restorehealth at the same time by issuing both switches at the same time. Command follows:

DISM /Online /Cleanup-image /Scanhealth && DISM.exe /Online 
/Cleanup-image /Restorehealth

DISM1

After this, it’s a good idea to run the SFC again to check if the command produces any errors or not. If you get the error message “cannot find source files” you need to have an ISO file mounted and need to specify where it is located with the below command

DISM /Online /Cleanup-Image /RestoreHealth 
/source:WIM:X:\Sources\Install.wim:1 /LimitAccess

The ISO must be exactly the same version as the running OS.  An ISO of 10532.0 will not repair a running system of 10533.0. simply put, the file version mismatch and some additional files are also introduced. If you do not have an ISO, download it from Microsoft site: https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/software-download/windows10

Further Reading:

 

comments: Closed tags: ,
Dec 10

Windows Server Core to GUI Conversion

Download PDF

This particular request came from a friend who is running Windows Server 2012 R2 Core. And he wanted to install Microsoft Exchange Server 2016 on that server. Now I have read somewhere that Exchange Server 2016 requires full GUI support for it to work, maybe from the preview documents, but i cannot recall.

Nonetheless, in order to achieve this your server must be running the full installation of Windows Server GUI components. Now run the following command to convert your existing core edition server to a full installation of Windows Server GUI:

Install-WindowsFeature Server-Gui-Mgmt-Infra 

and afterwards

Server-Gui-Shell -Restart

Please be mindful, you will require to have the installation media at hand, and a DVD-ROM attached to the machine, built-in or USB, as you require.