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Oct 15

Windows Servers: DNS Ports

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The default DNS port is 53. You can view the dynamic port range on a computer that is running Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008 computer by using the following netsh commands:

  • netsh int ipv4 show dynamicport tcp
  • netsh int ipv4 show dynamicport udp
  • netsh int ipv6 show dynamicport tcp
  • netsh int ipv6 show dynamicport udp

To comply with Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) recommendations, Microsoft has increased the dynamic client port range for outgoing connections in Windows Vista and in Windows Server 2008. The new default start port is 49152, and the default end port is 65535.

Traffic Type Source of Transmission Source Port Destination of Transmission Destination Port
Queries from local DNS server Local DNS server A random port numbered 49152 or above Any remote DNS server 53
Responses to local DNS server Any remote DNS server 53 Local DNS server A random port numbered 49152 or above
Queries from remote DNS server Any remote DNS server A random port numbered 49152 or above Local DNS server 53
Responses to remote DNS server Local DNS server 53 Any remote DNS server A random port numbered 49152 or above


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Oct 13

Windows 7 USB/DVD Tool – Make Your Own Bootable Memory Stick

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Microsoft has a tool and it’s so easy to make an ISO file to be transferred to a USB drive using the tool. It will readily create a USB bootable OS. Now download the file from the following link:

Windows 7 USB/DVD Download Tool: http://wudt.codeplex.com/

The compatibility center also approves that the tool is compatible with Windows 7, 8 & 8.1. But it didn’t show if I wanted to create a Windows Server 2012 R2 bootable USB drive? Would it work then? Let’s check.

Compatibility Check for Client OS: http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/compatibility/CompatCenter/ProductDetailsViewer?Type=Software&Name=Microsoft+Windows+7+USB%2FDVD+Download+Tool&ModelOrVersion=1&Vendor=Microsoft&Locale=&LastSearchTerm=&BreadcrumbPath=&TempOsid=Windows+8.1

Start the installation when you are ready:


Click Next for the installation to forward.


Click Install and wait for couple of minutes for the installation to complete


And the installation completes. Run the program


Choose the ISO file, here I chose the Windows Server 2012 R2 x64 version of the operating system ISO from my TechNet Subscription. You can also use the trial version ISO downloaded from the TechNet site.


Choose the ISO file of which you want to make the USB out of


Choose the USB drive and head for the installation to continue



Click on begin copying


Installation completes


As the USB drive seems filled up :) I used a 16GB drive for the OS

USB_13And run the setup; follows the screenshot (Content of the USB screenshot follows):


Now boot up the USB and following screen appears :)


And the tool can use bootable ISO’s namely the following to make it a bootable USB stick.

  1. Windows Server 2012 R2
  2. Windows 8.1
  3. Windows 8
  4. Windows 7
Oct 8

PowerShell 2.0 – ShutDown VM Script

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Here is the script for shutting down a Virtual Machine. Have a close look in the script and look for change needed, like your virtual machine name, exit reasons etc. This script is tested under Win2k8 and Win2k8R2 Environment. Thanks goes to the person who wrote this, I can’t remember his/her name or where I collected this script, but had it for a long time now, and used it regularly; now sharing this small script with you all.

# Shutdown a Virtual Machine (requires Integration Components)
 param([string]$vmName = $(throw "Must specify virtual machine name")  )
# Get the VM by name and request state to change to Enabled 
 $vm = gwmi -namespace root\virtualization Msvm_ComputerSystem -filter 
"ElementName='$vmName'"     # Get the associated Shutdown Component  
$shutdown = gwmi -namespace root\virtualization `      -query 
"Associators of {$vm} where ResultClass=Msvm_ShutdownComponent"
# Initiate a forced shutdown with simple reason string, 
return resulting error code  
return $shutdown.InitiateShutdown($true,"System Maintenance")
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Oct 7

Configuring PowerShell Web Access

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Ever realized that Windows Server 2012 and Windows Server 2012 R2 has the PowerShell feature that can be run from Web Browser? YES it has that feature. Following is a screenshot of that:


Now first thing you have to do is to issue the following command in your server (install the windows feature cmdlet):

Install-WindowsFeature WindowsPowerShellWebAccess –IncludeManagementTools

now add the web application and other required IIS components for PSWA by issuing the following command:

Install-PswaWebApplication –WebApplicationName “pswagateway” –UseTestCertificate

At this stage you should get a certificate warning for using a temp certificate, it would expire in ninety days :) Pls do remember this is by default HTTPS, and this configuration is not the end of the power of PowerShell. But this should be run in a test environment, NOT to be run in a production environment. You can also configure destination computer access connection type:

  • Configuration Type
  • SSL
  • Port Number
  • Application Name

within the same form-based authentication menu. Please remember by default, PSWA uses the ‘Default Web Site’ in IIS. And do use a valid certificate for this process to last.

Further Reading:

Oct 5

Configuring Two-Factor Authentication in Lync Server 2013

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A two factor authentication requires a domain username and then followed by a password, and afterwards a Certificate PIN or RSA PIN or similar or identical featured access types. Now in Windows Servers, implementing a Smart Card feature or a Virtual Smart Card feature enables improved security with certificates, which in turn can be validated against user accounts. The server then validates the credential passed to it and matches/compares the accounts statistics and then provides access to the user. Now we have covered the basic for Windows authentication, since we are talking about Lync Server 2013 Authentication factors; here is how:

Planning for the Two-Factor Authentication

Configuring Two-Factor Authentication

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